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Sandakan Basin

Sandakan Basin is located in the northern part of Borneo Island. Similar to other circum-Borneo basins, the Sandakan Basin is dominated by shallow to deep marine clastics sequences.

Fig. 1. NW-SE Seismic Section of part of Sandakan Basin (Petronas, 2000).
Foreset features of Sehabat Formation, indicating sediment transport from NW to SE. Source: Petronas 2000 in Tate, 2001.

Fig. 2. Manalunan-1 geoseismic interpretation after Wong, 1993.
A scetch of a seismic section across Manalunan-1 well which penetrated the Sehabat formation (Modified after Wong, 1993)

Fig. 3. NW-SE orientation seismic section (Petronas 2000)
NW - SE orientation seismic section
shows Pad Basin which is bounded by 2 flower structure system (Source: Petronas 2000 in Tate, 2001)

Fig. 4. Seismic section and well distribution of Futalan et al. (2012) study.

Futalan et al.(2012) published 2 seismic lines in the Philippines territory of Sandakan Basin (Fig. 4).

Fig. 5. Seismic section of Futalan et al. (2012)

Fig. 6. Seismic section across Hippo-1 well (Futalan et al., 2012)
Seismic interpretation along a seismic section by Futalan et al., 2012.

A zoom in and detail seismic interpretation across Hippo-1 well is shown in Fig. 6.

Futalan, K., Mitchell, A., Amos, K., & Backe, G., Seismic Facies Analysis and Structural Interpretation of the Sandakan Sub-basin, Sulu Sea, Philippines, Search and Discovery Article #30254 (2012) Posted October 29, 2012

Natuna Sea and Sarawak Basin

The Natuna Sea area is the southern extension of the South China Sea, mainly in the Indonesian territory. This area is divided by two parts by Natuna Arch, namely West Natuna Basin which extend to Malay Basin in West Malaysia and East Natuna Basin which extend of Sarawak Basin in East Malaysia

The West Natuna Basin was formed as an intra-continental rift basin within the Sunda Platform, the southern margin or Eurasian Plate. The basin has undergone Eocene-Oligocene extension, followed by Miocene to present day contraction and inversion.

In Late Cretaceous-Early Eocene reconstruction, East Natuna Basin was part of a large fore-arc basin extending from offshore Veitnam, across Natuna Sea to Sarawak. The SW-NE trending structures in East Natuna Basin are controlled by extensional faults and half grabens similar to the ones found in West Natuna Basin, but the rift magnitude is generally less than the ones in the West Natuna Basin.

West Natuna Seismic Sections
Seismic reflection section over the Anambas graben. Tectonic inversion over the graben occurred during the Miocene. Brown marker is the top Oligocene, Gabu formaion wheras the blue marker represents the Pliocene unconformtiy after inversion. The bright spots near basement may represent lacustrine source rocks with high TOC. Source: Fenstein, 2000.

Play concepts for West Natuna basin (Netherwood R., 2000, after Fainstein and Meyer, 1988)

East Natuna Seismic Sections

Seismic reflection section of East Natuna. No inversion occurs in this area. Blu marker represents top of carbona te reservoirs. Bursa is an oil field and Alpha-D is teh giant Natuna gas field (source: Fainstein, 2000).

Play concepts for East Natuna basin (source: Netherwood R., 2000, after Fainstein and Meyer, 1998)

ION Geophysics acquired deep seismic in Natuna area. The sections go as deep as 40 km. Below are a map and a sample section from their brochure  

Netherwood R., 2000, The Petroleum Geology of Indonesia, in: Blunden, T. (ed.), Indonesia 2000, Reservoir Optimization Conference, Schlumberger

Makassar Strait Basins

Tectonic provinces in the Makassar Strait Region (Darman, 2014)
Makassar Strait is located between Borneo and Sulawesi Island. In general the region is separated into two parts by NW-SE Adang - Paternoster Lateral Fault. The northern part compose of Kutei Basin in the west, North Makassar Basin in the centre and two basins in the east called Lariang and Karama Basins. Palu-Koro Fault set the northern boundary of the northern part. Paternoster Platform and the South Makassar Basin is located in the southern part of this region.

Fig. 2. PGS-1 South-North Seismic section across across Makassar Strait (Source: PGS)
PGS has processed and published a NS seismic line which cross different tectonic unit in the Makassar Strait. PGS-1 line goes across Muara Sub-basin of Tarakan Basin in the north, Mangkalihat Platform, North Makassar Basin, South Makassar Basin, Paternoster Platform and Lombok Basin.
Fig. 3. Location map fo PGS-1 seismic line

1. Palu Koro Fault
Fig. 4. TGS seismic line which shows the Mangkalihat Platform 
and the Palu Koro Fault system (right; Baillie, 2005)
The NW-SE oriented Palu Koro Fault system developed in the north of Makassar Strait. This fault is still active and generated a number of significant earth quake in Sulawesi onshore. The seismic section offshore shows a rough seabottom. Figure 4 shows a seismic section across the Mangkalihat Platform on the left and rough sea-bottom topography on the right, which is caused by the Palu-Koro fault system. Figure 5 provide the zoom-in image of Figure 4 to show the detail of the Palu-Koro fault system.

Fig. 5. TGS Seismic line, showing the detail of the Palu Koro 
Fault in Fig. 4 (Baillie, 2005)

2. Offshore Kutei Basin
Fig. 6. TGS MDD99 Line 19, showing the eastern margin 
of offshore Kutei Basin. 
The majority of Kutei Basin covers the eastern part of Borneo onshore. The drainage basin supplied sediments to the paleo-Mahakam Delta which develop further as deepwater system in the Makassar Strait. TGS MDD99 Line 19 (Fig. 6) shows the margin between the offshore Kutei Basin and the Northern Makassar Strait. The seismic section shows minimum deformation in the Northern Makassar Strait (right of Fig. 6) and potential toe-thrust system developed in the outer margin of the offshore Kutei Basin (left of Fig. 6).

PGS 3D seismic reprocessing in the southern part of offshore Kutei Basin  (Fig. 7) provide some detail images of the deltaic - deepwater system.
Fig. 7. Location map of the 3D seismic reprocessed by PGS.
Fig. 8. Dip line of PGS 3D seismic

Fig. 9. Strike line of PGS 3D seismic

3. Lariang Basin
Fig. 10. Seismic expression of North Makassar Strait (left) and 
Majene thrust belt (right). After Baillie, 2005. 
Structural Styles of the West Sulawesi Deep-Water Fold and Thrust Belt, Makassar Straits, Indonesia

by Jose de Vera & Ken McClay Fault Dynamics Research Group, Royal Holloway, University of London, Egham, United Kingdom

Southeastern part of Makassar Basin, Deepwater fold
belts. Source: TGS
The offshore margin of West Sulawesi (eastern Makassar Straits) is characterized by an active, Late Miocene/Early Pliocene to present day, NE-SW-trending and NW-verging deepwater fold and thrust belt. The fold and thrust is approximately 250 km long and as much as 75 km wide and consists of an Oligocene to present day succession that was deposited on subsiding, thinned, rifted continental crust and is now deformed by SW-to NE-verging thrust fault-related folds deformed on multiple detachment layers. Based on the across strike variations in structural style and bathymetry changes, the West Sulawesi fold and thrust belt can be divided into five across-strike main structural domains. From northwest to southeast these are: the abyssal plain, the deformation front, the folded domain, the thrust domain and the inversion domain. The abyssal plain is solely deformed by Pliocene to Pleistocene, low-displacement, planar extensional faults, which are interpreted to be the result of flexural subsidence ahead of the advancing thrust front. The structural styles of the deformation front are strongly controlled by inversion of the Pliocene to Pleistocene extensional faults. Inversion of pre-existing faults controls fault localization and fold vergence, giving rise to complex wedge and triangle zone geometries.
Southeastern part of Makassar Basin, Deepwater fold
belts. Source: TGS
The structural styles of the folded and thrust domains are characterized by complex NW- to SE-trending detachment and fault-propagation folds, with multiple detachment levels developed in Oligocene and Miocene mudstones. The inversion domain is the innermost and oldest element of the thrust belt and consists of large anticlines that resulted from reactivation of Paleocene rift structures. The results presented in this work are based on the structural analysis of 3480 km of regional 2D seismic lines.
The structural patterns described here have implications for understanding fault-fold geometries and growth in other deepwater fold and thrust belts.

AAPG Search and Discovery Article #90090©2009 AAPG Annual Convention and Exhibition, Denver, Colorado, June 7-10, 2009


South Sumatra Basin

The South Sumatra Basin is most southern back arc basin of Sumatra Island. It is bounded to the west by an active volcanic arc along the Sumatra Fault System.The basin has long petroleum history. Significant number of oil and gas fields were discovered in this basin. Example of several seismic section across several fields in this basin are displayed here:
1) Suban Field
2) Kaji Semoga

Depth to basement map of South Sumatra Basin shows the isochrone contours in Two-Way-Time. The map shows the position of oil and gas fields relative to the depocenter (Darman & Yuliong, 2020)
1. Suban Field

The Suban Field is located on top of a basement high as shown the following regional section prepared by Hennings et al, 2012 (in Marino Baroek, 2015). The stratigraphic units described in this section are:
6. Upper Nuicebe-Pliocene sandstone, shale, coal, volcanic - Kasai Formation
5. Middle-Upper Miocene sandstone and shale
4. Lower-Middle Miocene organic shale and rare sandstone - Telisa Formation
3. Lower Miocene platform and reefal (3a) carbonate - Batu Raja Formation
2. Paleogene/Neogene granite wash and clastic sequences - Lemat and Talangakar Formations
1. Sub-Cenozoic crystalline and metamorphic basement

Hennings et al, 2012 also prepared a field scale seismic section, showing several segments of the field, named Southwest, Centre and Northeast Domain, shown on the following figure.

2. Kaji Semoga Field

Hutapea et al., (2000) published some information about Kaji-Semoga field in South Sumatra Basin.

Two seismic sections of Kaji and Semoga Field are displayed here:

Section A went from West to East, crossing both Kaji and Semoga Field.
The lowest horizon in red is the top of the granitic basement. Both Kaji and Semoga Field are consist of carbonate reefs of Baturaja Formation, which built on top of basement high.

Section B is a North-South section across Kaji Field. Generally the basement is getting deeper southward in this part of the basin.

Central Sumatra Basin

Central Sumatra is one of the most prolific basin in Indonesia. It has a long history of oil production.

Images a half graben in the Central Sumatra basin where Oligocene strata thicken westward above an east-dipping normal fault that is locally defined by a prominent fault-plane reflection. In the uppermost part of the synrift section, at least three axial surfaces separate horizontal strata on the left (west) from inclined strata in rollover panels on the right (east) (Shaw et al., 1999).

Examples of growth triangles and angular unconformities in half grabens that are imaged in migrated seismic reflection profiles from the Central Sumatra basin. Note how strata above the angular unconformities in the east become concordant to the west in the deeper parts of the half grabens. Datum (0 km) is sea level (Shaw et al., 1999)

Migrated seismic reflection profile ZZ' along the strike of the trough that images a central low area bounded to the north and south by structural highs. Basin highs and lows are caused by lateral changes in fault geometry. The omitted portion of the profile includes an area of younger folding associated with faults other than the normal fault. Horizontal scale equals vertical scale; datum (0 km) is sea level (Shaw et al., 1999).

Shaw, J. H., Hook, S. C., Sitohang, E. P., 1999, Extensional Fault-Bend Folding and Synrift Deposition: An Example from the Central Sumatra Basin, Indonesia, Search and Discovery Article #40004

Timor Sea

Timor-Tanimbar Trough, Eastern Indonesia

The Timor-Tanimbar Trough is an oceanic trough, which is an eastern continuation of the Sunda Trench. It marks the boundary between Indo-Australian Plate's continental shelf and the Timor Plate in the north. The trough is located in the south of Timor Island and is called the Timor Trough with WSW to ENE orientation. Further east, the trough orientation changes to SW-NE and is called Tanimbar Trough.

Figure 1. Map of the Timor-Tanimbar Trough showing the location of seismic sections discussed. AP = Ashmore Platform; SP = Sahul Platform; VG = Vulcan Graben; MG = Malita Graben; CG = Calder Graben; GG = Gouburn Graben; MH = Mereuke High; MSP = Money Shoal Platform; BA=Barakan Basin; BB = Bonaparte Basin. Modified after Charlton, 2004 and Carter et al., 2003. 

A number of seismic lines across Timor-Tanimbar Trough have recently been published by different authors in several publications. Five of those seismic lines which provided regional geological understanding of the southern part of Banda arc, are discussed in this paper (Fig. 1). These seismic lines provide a better geological understanding of the area after Hamilton published regional seismic lines in 1979. In this paper, consistent stratigraphic nomenclature has been applied to these key seismic lines. This will help to understand the regional geological process in chronological order.

From west to east, the coverage of the sections published in this article are as follow:
  • Section 1: West part of Timor trough, published by Jones et al (2011; Fig. 2)
  • Section 2: East part of Timor trough to Australian Platform, published by Lee and Bawden (2011; Fig. 3);
  • Section 3: A regional older section, which provides a regional understanding of the tectonic in the area, is published by Hamilton (1979; Fig. 4);
  • Section 4: South of the Tanimbar trough, published by Carter at al. (2003; Fig. 5);
  • Section 5: A regional section across the northern part of Tanimbar trough published by Dinkelman et al, (2010; Fig 6), with details which is published by Roberts et al (2011).

Figure 2. Seismic Section 1 of the western part of Timor Trough after Jones et al, 2011. "H" marks the western most horst observed on this section.

Figure 3. Seismic Section 2 of the eastern part of Timor Trough after Lee and Bawden (2011). This section also shows the accretionary wedge in the north and the Sahul Platform in the south.
This article discusses the observations of these seismic lines, but the alternative interpretations are quite limited, for the lack of access to the original data. Seismic-to-well tie is not explained in the source of these seismic sections, and it will not be discussed in this paper.

Figure 4. Seismic Section 3, a long regional seismic section covering Australian Continental Shelf in the south to Weber Basin in the outer Banda Arc, published by Hamilton (1979). The quality of the seismic is poor for detail stratigraphic interpretation but it clearly shows the major tectonic unit in the region such as the Tanimbar outer-arc ridge and Weber outer-arc basin which is almost 8 km deep.

The stratigraphic nomenclature used in this article, refers to the chart published by Jones et al (2011) after Charlton, 2006 and Edwards et al, 2004 (Fig. 7). The key stratigraphic information in this area is taken from Timor Island outcrops and a number of wells in the Australian side of Timor Sea. The stratigraphy chart only goes as old as Permian and doesn’t cover the Carboniferous to Precambrian interval indicated in the south of Tanimbar trough.

Five seismic markers, which are commonly used in the sections, are added into the stratigraphic chart. These markers are Top Permian, Top Triassic, Darwin, Turonian and Base Cenozoic. All horizons, apart from Darwin horizon, are related to major unconformities caused by tectonic events.

The outcrops in West Timor are not easily tied to the offshore seismic in the trough, because seismic correlation across the accretionary complex is very difficult. Complex fault system has disturbed the seismic reflectors as shown in Fig. 2 (for an example).

In the stratigraphic chart (Fig. 7), Triassic and lower Jurassic with sand dominating formations, are existing in Bonaparte Basin and part of West Timor. The Lower Cretaceous interval is dominated by a shaly formation of Wai Bua Nakfunu Formation in West Timor and Echusa Shoals Formation in Bonaparte Basin. Carbonate sequence developed well in most of the area during the Lower Tertiary. Neogene formation does not exist in West Timor due to tectonic uplift in the area.

Timor Trough
The Timor Trough is located in the south of Banda Arc with water depth up to 2000 meters. In this area, the Australian plate is subducting northward below the Asian Plate and generating an accretionary complex. Part of this complex is exposed in Timor Island. Several model of the tectonic system in this area has been discussed by Richardson and Blundell (1996).

Two sections represent the Timor Trough in this article. Section 1 is located the south of West Timor (Fig. 2), published by Jones et al, 2011. This section mainly shows the structure and stratigraphy in the middle of the trough with a little part of Ashmore Platform in the south and part of the accretionary complex in the north. The water depth in this area reaches 3 seconds two-way-time.

Permian unit is the deepest interpreted interval in this section (Fig. 2). In the south, the Permian interval comes as shallow as 4 seconds. The intra Permian seismic reflector is generally clear in the south but they are poorly imaged in the middle of the section.

The Triassic unit is very thick compare to other sections discussed in this paper. Towards the centre of the trough, the Triassic section is up to 2.6 seconds. This unit is sub-divided into three units by the base Chalis and Pollard Formation horizons. These nomenclatures come from Bonaparte Basin stratigraphy chart shown in Figure 7.

A series of normal faults cut through the Permian and Triassic section in the south of the section. These faults generated a series of horst and graben in the Permian section. The south and north heading faults cut each other in the Triassic section in the Triassic interval with minor offset. In other sections these faults formed hourglass structure pattern as discussed in detail by Çiftçi, N. B. & Langhi, L. (2012).

In the south of Section 1, the seismic reflectors of the Triassic unit has been truncated, indicating an erosional process which formed an angular unconformity. This phenomenon is probably caused by a tectonic uplift related to the Ashmore Platform, which is started in Late Triassic (Carlton et al, 2012, this volume).

The majority of Jurassic and Cretaceous unit is not existed in the south of Section 1. To the north the Jurassic unit in Section 1 is gradually thickening towards the centre of the trough. The Cretaceous unit also only appears in the trough area, but there is no significant thickening is seen on the seismic section. Possibly the sediment transport direction is perpendicular to Section 1.

The Cenozoic section in Section 1 is also thickening towards the trough. A number of faults has gone through this unit and go up to top of section, creating some sea bottom expressions. The thrust fault in the north of this section has created a significant sea bottom relief (Fig. 2).

In the east of the Timor Trough, longer Section 2 shows more of the accretionary wedge and the tectonically stable Sahul Platform (Fig. 3). Similar to Section 1, Lee and Bawden (2011) started their interpretation with Permian interval. Below the base Permian interval, however, a number of continuous reflectors are still well observed. These reflectors are probably belong to Carboniferous or older stratigraphy.

The overlain Triassic unit in Section 2 is relatively constant in its thickness (Fig. 3). Carlton (2012, this volume) indicates an early development of Sahul Platform in late Triassic. Unfortunately this section is not detail enough to support this model, but the thickness changes of the overlain Jurassic unit to the south and north may support it.

A major northward dipping fault in edge of the Australian Shelf generates an offset of nearly 1.5 sec. TWT at the lowest part of the section. Poorly imaged seismic downthrown of the fault makes the correlation across the fault difficult. This major offset is also seen in Section 1 (Fig. 2) at the similar position of the trough.

The Cretaceous unit in Section 2 (Fig. 3) shows a gradual thinning towards the trough. In the proximal part, Lee and Bawden (2011) sub-divided the Cretaceous interval into 3 subunits by the Darwin and Turonian horizons. The Darwin Formation is ranging from Valanginian to Aptian in age. The horizons in Section 2 indicate the top of the formation. This formation is dominated by shale. Edwards et al (2004) called this interval Echusa Shoals Formation in the Bonaparte Basin. In West Timor this formation is equivalent to Wai Bua Nakfunu Formation. The top Darwin horizon is also a marker of the hiatus above Echusa Shoals Formation and close to the top of Wai Bua Nakfunu Formation.

Tanimbar Trough
The eastern extension of the Timor Trough goes to the south of Tanimbar Islands and so it is called the Tanimbar Trough. The orientation of the trough has changed to SW-NE orientation and it is narrower than the Timor Trough. The maximum water depth in this area is also up to > 2000 meters. The water depth in Section 4 and 5 (Fig. 5 & 6), are about 2.5 sec. TWT.
Figure 5. Seismic Section 4, composite seismic sections showing the tectonic units in the south of Tanimbar Trough such as the Banda Arc accretionary wedge, Tanimbar trough, northeastern Abadi High and the Calder Graben (after Carter et al, 2003)..
Section 3 (Fig. 4) shows a regional setting from Australian Continental Shelf to the Weber Basin, published by Hamilton (1979). The water depth is gradually deepening from south to north. In the north part of the section, the water depth is getting shallower in shorter distance towards the Tanimbar Islands. This steeper slope is generated by the subduction process. Further to the north, the section goes through the outer arc basin, and it is called the Weber Basin. The deepest part of the basin reaches 7 km of water depth. The seismic reflections in the Australian Continental Shelf are clearer than the rest of the section because the shelf is tectonically less disturbed. The Tanimbar Island complex is caused by complex faulting mechanism. And in the south of Weber Basin, a recent accommodation space has developed in a water depth of 4-5 km, as shown by the flat seabed.
Figure 6. A) Section 5 regional seismic line from the Arafura Basin in the east to outer Banda Arc in the west after Dinkelman et al, 2010; B) Detail section of Section 5 published by Lee & Bawden, 2011, showing part of the Australian Platform subducted below the accretionary complex; C) Stratigraphic interpretation of B).

 Carter et al. (2003) has interpreted Precambrian to Carboniferous interval at the base of Section 4 (Fig. 5). This unit is the deepest observed stratigraphy in this article. The shallowest Carboniferous unit is observed in the northern part of Abadi High, about 4 sec. TWT deep. The seismic section shows a missing section and it probably happened due to tectonic uplift and erosion in the SE of this fault block. The seismic reflector of the base of Ordovician unit is not well defined in this section. However, Carter et al (2003) has interpreted SE ward thickening in the Calder Graben and the east most part of this section. In Calder Graben, the Ordovician section varies from 0.6 to 1.7 sec. TWT. In the NW of Calder Graben this section has small variety of thickness change and in Tanimbar trough this unit is only 0.5 sec. TWT thick or less.

Minor Permian and Triassic interval have been interpreted by Carter et al (2003) in the northwest of Section 4. The missing Permian to Triassic interval in the southeast of Section 4 is not well explained. Charlton (2012, this volume) indicates a major NNE-SSW sinistral lateral fault in this area during Permian. This may explain the missing Permian to Triassic interval in the majority of Section 4 (Fig. 5).

The Jurassic interval covers Section 4 entirely (Fig. 5). Carter et al (2003) interpretes thicker Jurassic interval in the Calder Graben, in southeast and thinner unit in the northwest. The fault pattern in Section 4 has indicated that the faults have created a local depression in Calder Graben and generating an accommodation space for the Jurassic unit. The faults work in a similar way for the overlain Cretaceous unit. In the south of the Northern Abadi High, the Cretaceous unit is about 1.5 msec TWT and in the north of the high it changes to < 0.5 sec. TWT.

Above the Cretaceous unit, the Cenozoic interval covers the entire Section 4. The Cretaceous interval is gradually getting thicker towards the trough. In the SE of the section, the thickness of this unit is about 1.2 sec. TWT and is changing to 2 sec. TWT in the centre of the trough.
Figure 7. Stratigraphy of West Timor (Charlton, 2006) and Bonaparte Basin (Edwards et al, 2004)as reference for the stratigraphy of the Timor-TanimbarTrough
A regional seismic section goes across the north of the Tanimbar Trough (Fig. 6A), showing the relationship of the Arafura Basin, the Tanimbar Trough and the accretionary wedge complex in the west. In Section 5A, Dinkelman et al. (2010) shows the pre-Cambrian Wessel Group and Mc Arthur Basin in the north of Tanimbar Trough. These two units can reach up to 25 km in the south of the Arafura Basin. Base on Arafura-1 well and outcrops in Wessel Islands, Struckmeyer (2006) describes these units as consist of mainly shallow marine sandstone, siltstone and mudstone with minor conglomerate and carbonates.

A detail section of the regional section in Figure 6A is published by Roberts et al (2011), shown in Figure 6B. The interpretation of this section is based on the horizons used in Figure 3, where both have similar section of the Australian shelf. The interpretation of this section is started with Permian unit which underlain the SE part of the section. The overlain Triassic unit has poor seismic reflectors in the ESE part of the section.

An insignificant thickness change is observed from Jurassic to Cretaceous interval as seen on Section 5. It is very clear in the section (Fig 6B) that the Australian Shelf goes below the Tanimbar accretionary complex. The Jurassic interval is about 0.3 to 0.5 sec. TWT and the Cretaceous interval is divided by Darwin and Turonian as displayed in Section 2.

The Timor-Tanimbar trough is bounded by the Banda Accretionary Wedge in the north with complex structures and poor reflectors. Seismic interpretation is hardly possible in this tectonic unit. The faults generate an irregular sea bottom surface.

In the south of the Timor Trough, thick sedimentary sequence above the stable Australian Plate is dipping to the north. Close to the trough, the sequence is cut by intensive fault system. Several faults go up to the surface and generate some sea bottom expressions. There are sea bottom terraces caused by major faults.

Towards the east, the orientation of the trough gradually swings to the north and commonly called as the Tanimbar Trough. Strike slip fault system developed at the northern end, close to Kai Islands.The trough becomes narrower and shallower compared to the Timor Trough.

The northward direction of Australian plate movement may cause the geometry of the trough system. In the south of this study area, the Australian plate moves almost perpendicular to the Asian plate margin. The collision formed the accretionary complex, Timor Island and Timor trough subsequently. To the north, the Australian plate movement direction is subparallel to the eastern edge of the Asian plate and this lateral movement formed the narrower Tanimbar trough with strike slip faults.

The author would like to thank Wayan Heru Young and Junida Rejeki Purba for reviewing this article.

Carter, P., Barber, B., Fraser, T., Baillie, P., Myers, K., 2003 Under-explored Petroleum Systems in the Paleozoic and Mesozoic of the Timor and Arafura Seas, Eastern Indonesia, SEAPEX Conference proceedings.

Charlton, T. R., 2004, The Petroleum Potential of the Banda Arc, AAPG Bulletin, v. 88.

Charlton, T. R., 2012, Permian-Jurassic Paleogeography of the SE Banda Arc Region, Indonesian Sedimentological Journal, v. 24 (this volume).

Çiftçi, N. B. & Langhi, L., 2012, Evolution of the hourglass structures in the Laminaria High, Timor Sea: Implications for hydrocarbon traps, Journal of Structural Geology, Volume 36.

Dinkelman, M., Granath, J., Christ, J. and Emmet, P., 2010, Arafura Sea: A Deep Look at an Underexplored Region SEAPEX Press No. 62, Volume 13, Issue 4, Q4,.

Edwards, D.S., Preston, J.C., Kennard, J.M., Boreham, C.J., van Aarssen, B.G.K., Summons, R.E. and Zumberge, J.E., 2004, Geochemical Characteristics of Hydrocarbons from the Vulcan Sub-basin, Western Bonaparte Basin, Australia. In: Ellis, G.K., Baillie, P.W. and Munson, T.J., (editors), Timor Sea Petroleum Geoscience, Proceedings of the Timor Sea Symposium, Darwin, 19-20 June 2003. Northern Territory Geological Survey, Special Publication 1, 169-201.

Hamilton, W., 1979, Tectonics of the Indonesian Region, Geological Survey Professional Paper 1078, United States Government Printing Office,

Jones, W., Tripathi, A., Rajagopal, R. and Williams, A., 2011, Petroleum Prospectivity Of The West Timor Trough, PESA News Resourcdes online.

Lee, S. G & Bawden, M., 2011, Exploration Opportunities in the Prolific Bonaparte Basin of the Timor Sea, Spectrum Geo Expro Issue 2, Volume 8, 2011

Richardson, A.N., Blundell, D.J. 1996 Continental collision in the Banda Arc. In: R. Hall and D.J. Blundell, (Eds.) Tectonic Evolution of Southeast Asia Geological Society of America Special Publication 106, 47-60.

Roberts, G., Christoffersen, T., Ramsden, C., 2011, New Light has been Shed on the Petroleum Potential of the Northern Arafura Shelf area in Eastern Indonesia, by, Spec Partners Ltd; C. Ramsden, Far Cape Pte, in Geo Expro Issue 2, Volume 8, 2011

Stukmeyer, H. I. M. (compiler), 2006, Petroleum Geology of the Arafura & Money Shoal Basins, Geoscience Australia Record 2006/22.

Schulter, H. U. & Fritsch,J., 1985, Geology and Tectonics of the Banda Arc Between Tanimbar Island and Aru Island, Geol Jb. 30, 3-41

North East Java Basin

Northeast Java Basin
 Basin shows the isochrone contours in Two-Way-Time. The map shows the position of oil and gas fields relative to the depocenters (Darman & Yuliong, 2020)

Some seismic expression of geological features in NE Java Basin, a back arc basin offshore East Java with significant strike-slip fault system, and horst-graben features.

Fold features in the south of Madura Island. The fold in the centre is not a simple anticline, as it may be cut by faults. (Source: Fugro)

Bright amplitude in the centre are related to topographical high, may indicate carbonate build-ups. The sequences are pinching out to the right, and truncated by a shallower unconformity. (Source: Fugro)

The centre part of the faulted anticline feature is slightly thicker compare to the flank, as several sedimentary packages developed towards the core of the anticline. This indicate that the central of the anticline was a sedimentary pocket, probably created by the fault on the left. At later stage these depocentres were uplifted. (Source: Fugro)

Carbonate features of Kujung Formation (Source: Fugro)

Slightly rotated faulted blocks at the basin margin (Source: Fugro)

Steep-dipping Kujung carbonate reef flanks, indicated by arrows. (Source: PGS)
Time slice at 0.15s TWT showing complex meandering channel system. Horizontal scale scale is about 15 km. (Long and Johansen, 2003; data source: PGS)

Time slice at 1.0 s TWT showing the carbonate features. The diameter of the karst feature is probably less than 1 km. (Long and Johansen, 2003; data source: PGS)

3D perspective of the Top Kujung surface about 1.0 s TWT, revelas the density and complex distribution of carbonates throughout the HDMC3D survey area. (Long and Johansen, 2003; data source: PGS)